Blog theme update

Happy New Year, everyone. I am sure you have already noticed the site's new theme. Today, I finally made up my mind to bid the old Twenty-fifteen theme I have been using for more than two years farewell. For those who are still unsure which blog they are looking at, here's a copy of the old theme… Continue reading Blog theme update


Memo: Digital PID controller

Digital controllers are more expensive to build in simple applications than analog counterparts but they are universally easier to implement at all scales. Digital controllers are limited by their sampling rates while they are capable of reaching steady state in a finite time and have much greater noise tolerance. Continuing from the last memo concerning analog PID,… Continue reading Memo: Digital PID controller

DIY Memo: Cross-compile ARM on Windows

Just a quick memo for setting up the toolchains for building ARM firmware on Windows platform. Software recommendations First, download and install the following software: A source code editor that supports debugging (Atom, Visual Studio Code, Eclipse, etc.) MinGW - GNU ARM Toolchain - J-Link Software and Documentation Pack (can be skipped, see below)… Continue reading DIY Memo: Cross-compile ARM on Windows

Memo: Design an analog PID controller

A controller transforms a plant (uncontrolled process) into a controlled system. A controller alters the input signal of the plant in order to correct the output error, which is the difference between the momentary output of the entire system and a reference value. The most popular controller in education and industry is the Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID… Continue reading Memo: Design an analog PID controller

Highlight: Winter 2018 anime season

The main hype this season revolves around Madhouse studio and their second season shows. For a long, long time, it has become an established fact in the industry that Madhouse, as talented as they are, never get around to make a second season of anything. And yet, here we are, beholding this historic moment when… Continue reading Highlight: Winter 2018 anime season

Memo: Thermodynamic processes

When investigating thermodynamic systems, especially gaseous systems, scientists often keep one of the three variables (pressure, volume, temperature) at constant and vary the remaining two. The act of fixating one variable and changing the others gives rise to thermodynamic, conjugate variable processes: Isobaric: constant pressure. Isothermal: constant temperature. Isometric / Isochoric / Isovolumetric: constant volume.… Continue reading Memo: Thermodynamic processes

Memo: Chemical bonding models

Beyond the level of individual atoms, atomic theory also concerns itself with the mechanism of molecular bonding and the geometry of molecules. There are three relevant chemical bonding models nowadays: Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR): the simplest, most primitive model based on electron field repulsions and Lewis structure. Valence bond theory (VB): a modern… Continue reading Memo: Chemical bonding models

Memo: Atomic models

Atoms are composed of subatomic particles whose quantity and arrangement affect their properties. The scientific theory correlating subatomic particles' quantity, their arrangement in an atom, and the atom's properties is called "atomic theory". Atomic theory attempts to explain how certain electron configurations affect the reactivity of elements, how certain elements are polarized while others aren't,… Continue reading Memo: Atomic models

Memo: Thermodynamics in Chemistry

All energy transferences are done in two ways: by heat or by work. In any given system and any given process, the total energy transferred is the sum of the heat transferred and the amount of work transferred. This says nothing about the ratio of work and heat in the total energy, or why energy can only… Continue reading Memo: Thermodynamics in Chemistry

Memo: Gas laws

Historically, the proportionalities of temperature, volume, and pressure of an ideal gas are described in pair empirically by Boyle's law (pressure-volume), Charles' law (temperature-volume), and Gay-Lussac's law (pressure-temperature). These early gas laws; along with Avogadro's law, which links the study of gas in Physics to the number of molecules in Chemistry; are combined to form the modern ideal… Continue reading Memo: Gas laws

Short story: Valentine special

The boy took long strides through a narrow passageway behind the university's building. He climbed a heap of unused tables onto the roof of a storage sack. From there, he made a dash and leaped over the fence. He landed on all four, rolled on the ground a few times before slamming his back against… Continue reading Short story: Valentine special